How Anesthesia is used for Cosmetic Surgery

Local Anesthesia Side Effects

The risks and complications that are associated with many types of anesthesia can lead to converse effects to the nervous system causing heart failure.
Such as in the case of local anesthesia toxicity, if used in excessive doses or administered improperly can cause fatal results.
Signs and systems related to the central nervous system or cardiovascular system have been shown to occur in the following areas.
Studies show that symptoms such as headedness, dizziness, tinnitus, circumoral numbness, abnormal taste, confusion, drowsiness, convulsion leading to loss of consciousness, coma, respiratory depression, and respiratory arrest or tachycardia and rise in blood pressure.

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Types of Anesthesia

Types of Anesthesia

Medicines used by surgeons to block pain comes in a variety of methods while reducing the body’s normal stress responses. Your medical condition will dictate what type of medical procedures.
One of the main things is that medicines are used for anesthesia help you relax, relieve pain, induce sleep, amnesia and unconsciousness.
The types used range from local anesthetics, such as bupivacaine or lidocaine, which are injected directly into the body where the surgery will take place.
Then there is intravenous anesthetics, there is fentanyl, propofol, or sodium thiopental put through the patients vein.
In the case of inhalation anesthetics they are isoflurane and nitrous oxide which are breathe through a mask. Other medicines that are used during anesthesia will be muscle relaxants, which block transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles.
The medical professionals also will need to use reversal agents, which are given to counteract or reverse the effects of other medicines such as muscle relaxants or sedatives given during anesthesia.

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Plastic Surgery Anesthesia

Plastic surgeons use anesthesia for numerous procedures, and the primary function of anesthesia is to prevent pain.

There are 4 main types which are local anesthesia, sedation, regional anesthesia and general anesthesia.
These medicines are used to prevent pain in the specific area that requires surgery with ointment, spray or injection or administered intravenously through a vein, or combination of medications to help prevent pain, anxiety that is associated with medical procedures.
Some find that during sedation, they are awake but sleepy, because the injections are administered to the surrounding nerves that may produce pain signals.
As far as general anesthesia it will put you to sleep and prevent pain by inhalation or injection into a vein.
Conscious Sedation Drugs
Many medical or diagnostic procedure techniques are used to reduce the agitation or anxiety caused by cosmetic surgery.
So the the administration of sedative drugs such as propofol, etomidate, ketamine, fentanyl, and midazolam are commonly used in various procedures such as endoscopy, vasectomy, rapid sequence intubation, minor surgery, reconstructive surgery, cosmetic surgeries, and removal of wisdom teeth.



Clinical Anesthesia, 7e: Print + Ebook with Multimedia


Non-Surgical Cosmetic Procedures

Those do not require surgery would include Botox Injections that are used to paralyze the facial muscle to prevent frown lines that appear from squinting.
Also there is the collagen fat Injections that uses fat from your thighs or abdomen to improve the appearance of facial wrinkles, pits, or scars.
One of the most popular procedures for the skin would probably be dermabrasion which removes the upper layer of skin to reveal a new layer of skin on the face from the healing process which makes the face look smoother in appearance.
Hyaluronic acid injection is used to smooth lines, wrinkles, and scars on the face, while laser hair removal can be done with a laser light passed over the skin to remove hair.
Laser skin resurfacing is also used to regenerate the skin and remove wrinkle lines, age spots, scars, moles, tattoos, and warts from the surface of the skin.
Sclerotherapy is a procedure used to help with spider and varicose leg veins by the injection of a solution to remove small purple and red blood vessels found in the legs.
As you are probably aware the chemical peel is a process that is put on the skin to cause it blister and peel off so as to reveal the new skin underneath.
Facial plastic surgery anesthesia
There are several types of anesthesia that can be used with most facial plastic surgery procedures. Such as in the case of skin rejuvenation and resurfacing many practicing plastic surgeons like to use local or topical anesthesia for the cost effectiveness and safety.

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General Anesthesia Recovery

Anesthesiologist, are trained in a complete internship along with 3 years of anesthesiology residency after medical school.

General anesthesia may be administered via gas, an IV line or a combination of both to induce unconsciousness.

The anesthesia care team includes nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologist assistants in the PACU post-anesthesia care unit also known as the anesthetic administration who specialize in pain relief and the care of patients before, during and after surgery.
Principles of General Anesthesia
The reason medical practitioners utilize general anesthesia is due to its many purposes such as loss of response to pain, loss of memory, loss of motor reflexes, loss of consciousness as well as skeletal muscle relaxation.
The principles on which general anesthesia is based falls under these four stages of anaesthesia
1. Induction which is the initial administration of the induction agents and loss of consciousness.
2. The excitement stage is followed by loss of consciousness in which respiration’s and heart rate may be irregular along with uncontrolled movements, vomiting or breath holding, so drugs are used to minimize time in this stage.
3. Surgical Anaesthesia is when the skeletal muscles relax, and the patients breathing becomes regular, once eye movements stop and become fixed along with loss of corneal and laryngeal reflexes, the pupils dilate,lose light reflex, the anesthesiologists doctor will look for intercostal paralysis, shallow abdominal respiration and dilated pupils before surgery can begin.
4. Anaesthesia overdose, is when there is too much medication is given causing severe brain stem or medullary depression. Cardiovascular collapse results in decreased oxygen in the body, loss of blood flow to the heart interrupting heart function.

Anesthesiologist’s Manual of Surgical Procedures


The Benefits of Local Anesthesia

Some patients can be at risk from general anesthesia from a simple procedure such as a fat transfer if they have an adverse reaction to the drugs being administered by the anesthetic team.
So less invasive cosmetic surgery is a better option, because mild sedation is all that is required in most cases especially if the board certified facial plastic surgeon can explain why it is better, safer and more cost effective.
Many lives can be saved, although there are risks associated with the administering of this type of procedure such as bleeding, infections, and scarring. But these are minor and can be managed with the help of new technology and experienced physicians.

After the discussion of what is all involved with general anesthesia recovery you can see why many cosmetic surgery procedures prefer the local anesthesia because it only requires part of the body to be rendered insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness.
This will allow the patient to recover faster and eliminate most risk making it safer for small facial improvements such as botox or wrinkle treatments.
Topical anesthesia
Know your options when it comes to facial plastic surgery to save on your recovery time and outpatient care needs.
In the case of a topical anesthetic you will notice that it is a local anesthetic used to numb the surface of a body part such as in numbing an area of the skin or the front of the eyeball, inside the nose, ear or throat which can have risks if the medication is absorbed by the body and causes a reaction.
The interesting thing about topical anesthetics is that they are available in creams, ointments, aerosols, sprays, lotions, and jellies that need to be applied at least an hour before the procedure for maximum support.
Some examples of these types of pain relief used predominately in optometry and denistry include benzocaine, butamben, dibucaine, lidocaine, oxybuprocaine, pramoxine, proparacaine, proxymetacaine, and tetracaine or amethocaine that is used to relieve pain, itching from minor burns, cuts and scratches.
The purpose is to numb the immediate treatment area with facial procedures such as chemical peels or laser tattoo removal.

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Anesthesia in Cosmetic Surgery

Anesthesia in Cosmetic Surgery

You will want to read this comprehensive book that covers information for students in the medical field. Inside there are things that an anesthesiologist needs while learning about perioperative care and pain management along with the operations and conscious monitoring of patients. In the book you will see how it explains the procedures for the surgeon’s and the anesthesiologist’s perspective, on things such as anesthetic techniques for the anesthesiologist as well as surgeons on before, during, and after surgery.


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