How drilling oil happens
What is oil and how is it made?
First, oil is a fossil fuel that’s commercially available worldwide.
It originated from the deposits of minuscule plants as well as other living organisms (plankton) that settled down into the depths of the sea—down the coast and mud. These microorganisms deteriorated in the sea for about 10- 600 million years.
Throughout the years, these organisms decompose in the deposited layers. Since there was minimal oxygen present; the microorganisms split the deposits into carbon-rich compounds which created organic layers.
After which, the organic material mixes with the remains, source rock, or forming fine-grained shale. Just as the sedimentary layers where deposited, they use overpowering pressure and temperature of the rock source. This high temperature and pressure extract the organic materials in natural gas and crude oil.
Fluctuations in the Earth accumulate natural gas and oil in the repository rocks between the layers of impenetrable rock, or cap rock from marble or granite.
This reservoir is produced when the oil gushing from the rock source develops into thicker, more permeable sandstone or limestone.
Folding- The bending of rock forms in the Earth due to pressurized tectonic forces such as continental collisions that generally transpires at depth in the Earth
Faulting- Fracturing of rocks in the Earth that trigger slip and breakage similar to the fracture. Brought by extensional, compressed, and shear forces that commonly transpires in close proximity to the surface of the Earth.
Pinching out- A layer of non porous rock is compressed upward going to the repository rocks.
Shallow drilling had been utilized for hundreds of years to analyze surface rock, surface characteristics, soil types, and most likely, some small-scale core samples obtained. Today, modern oil geologists also analyze surface rocks and terrains with additional help from satellite images. Nevertheless, there are numerous types of methods to locate oil.
Through the use of sensitive gravity meters, they can calculate subtle variations in the Earth’s gravitational field– these changes could signify gushing oil. Furthermore, another method that can be used is magnetometers. It will determine the minuscule changes in the Earth’s magnetic field caused by flowing oil. Additionally, the sensitive electronic noses known as sniffers will assist in spotting the smell of carbon easily.
Lastly, with seismology- the most common method, it’s possible to analyze the shock waves that travel through isolated rock layers and those that reflect into the surface.
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