The creation of the roman empire

The Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (latin: Imperium romanum) is the name given to the ancient Roman domination which took place between 27 BC and 476 AD. During this period of five centuries, the Roman State  expanded to the point of encompassing a territory ranging from the Mauretania Tingitana (Morocco) to Mesopotamia, and Santiago (England) to Egypt, thus creating one of the largest political entities of the story, which influenced deeply the Mediterranean world, in its cultural, linguistic, and finally religious, while ensuring the preservation of the ancient Greek civilization inherited. The Imperial period was also a time of development of economic trade, facilitated by the construction of a major road network that has existed up to the modern era.

The Empire was founded by Augustus, who ended the last civil war, in the end of the Roman Republic. Unlike the Republican plan, which was oligarchic, the Empire was an autocracy, while during the Principate of Republican appearances: political power was mainly held by a single man, the Emperor, who leaned on ever more developed bureaucracy, a large territorial administration and a powerful military machine.

Augustus’s reign

After defeating Marc Antoine at the naval battle of Actium by the intermediary of Vipsanius Agrippa in September 31 BC J.-C., Octave, adopted son and heir of Jules César, becomes sole owner of power and “master of all Empire . Then opens a new and decisive period in the establishment of the Principate, a political system that appears as a return to the republicainesm institutions . However, a re-establishment of the Republic seems impossible after almost a century of civil wars, where the heads of wars and political men take, as an individual, a preeminent place, accepted by tousm . In addition, Octave is the first to succeed in finding the support of the people and the nobility, the ‘ consensus universorumm 

In 30 BC, he received the ius auxilii of the tribunes, that makes him the ‘protector of the Plebs. On 1 January 29, magistrates and the Senate take the oath to respect the arrangements of the imperatorm . In August, Octave celebrating three triumphs then dedicated the temple of the divine Caesar and inaugurates the Curie Juliam .

The following year, with Agrippa, he revises the list of senators (lectio senatus) and identifies the population (censoria potestas) through powers seconded Republic judicial censeurp. It is the Consulate for the sixth time, with Vipsanius Agrippa, the judiciary being new legally partagep , and will be renewed in this function until 23 av. j. – 3 Cm. January 13, , at the end of a long speech in the Senate, Octave makes it to the Senate and the Roman people his powers and the State, to which he gave his freedom and the paixm. The Senators refused, and a scenario certainly prepared, they assign proconsulaire power for ten Kangni . The Roman lands are divided into Senatorial provinces (pacified) and Imperial (where are the armed forces)  On 16 January, he received the sacred title «of Augustus”on the initiative of Senator Munatius Plancusp .

By these constitutional rules, the personal regime, regime of exception so far, enters its period organiquep. August, recognized as princeps, which means the ‘citizens first’, becomes the official head of State romainp. He took absolute control of the army, 28 legions, which provides funding and is protected at all times by the Praetorian, stationed in Urbsp 4 (until then no troops not resided at Rome).

By definition, the regime has an attribution share between new power – princeps – and traditional powers – legislative assemblies, the judiciaries and the Senate.

The expansion and consolidation of borders

The expansion and consolidation of borders

Auguste fortifies the Roman power around the Mediterranean basin, both seeking to organize and optimize the borders of the Empirem 

As a result of the addition of the Egypt in 30 BC J.-C, it annexed a part of vassals, clients and allies of the Empire, including Syria and Anatoliem , then completes the conquest of the Hispaniem  after having pacified the Gaulem  Then it’s the Noricum and Raetia who become Roman, through campaigns of Tiberius and his brother Drususm  Dalmatia and Pannonia revolted at the edge of a campaign against the Marcomanni led by Tiberius, who turns against the revolts that it beats hard, having need of stripped the Rhine to come to boutp . The Marcomanni had not joined the revolt and then negotiate to become a friend of the Romans

In the East, unlike Jules César, it seeks to ensure peace, thinking that a military campaign would be too incertainem . He negotiated with King Phraatès IV, the Armenia again under Roman Cup, Auguste retrieves the signs taken at the legions of Crassus thirty years earlier, as well as the prisoners still in viem . This diplomatic success, for the Romans, has the same importance as a military victory, putting the Parthian Empire in the same way as a vassal of Romem 

He tackles back to Elba and not to the Rhine border, and it is Drusus who launched the offensive and conquered land germainesm  then Tiberius succeeded him at his mortm . But the disaster happens in, when Varus travels to Germany to organize the new province, and is crush with three legions, causing the loss of all first-degree land then conquisesm . This will be the only failure of Augustem .

At his death, the entire Mediterranean basin is under Roman domination, all difficult inland territories are pacifiesp  and the  Empire is more coherent, more strong, more balanced and better organized than it was auparavantm.

The emperor Tiberius

Auguste must ensure the stability of the regime after his death. The Emperor is often sick, and from the beginning of his reign, he must be concerned to appoint a successor, who must be a member of the family imperialem 18.

In 29 BC, his first choice is Marcellus, nephew, who married then Julia, daughter of Augustus, but he died in 23 BC J.,  and the Emperor turns to Agrippa, his most faithful and former alliem. Agrippa is a depositary of the throne in the event of loss of the emperor as a successor. When the princeps fell seriously ill in 23 BC, it was given by Augustus the ring that serves as seal authenticating the acts officielsm . Then, he receives an imperium greater than any other on the eastern part of the Empire and married Juliam 

The true successors to think Auguste are the children of this union, grandsons Gaius and Lucius, who are respectively born in 20-17 BC, and which are adopted by the empereurm Agrippa acts as colleague of the Emperor having so much power but he died in 12 BC, and it is Tiberius who reprises the role of protector, marrying in turn with Juliam and Tiberius and his brother Drusus receive proconsulaire imperium, but Drusus in 9 BC. Tiberius then receives the tribunitienne power and his imperium is renewed, like from Agrippa a few years earlier, but he suddenly withdrew from life politiquem . Gaius and Lucius, the heirs reach adulthood, and Emperor promotes, but they die tour at tourm 

Tiberius returns from exile after seven years and was adopted by Augustem. New owner of the two major powers, Tiberius became the colleague of Augustus, and his many successful military campaigns the legitimentm. On the death of Augustus, Tiberius holds always proconsulaire imperium and tribunitienne power, which makes him the unique holder of the supremem  power.

The events surrounding the succession of Augustus are very important for the rest of the early Roman Empire, determining the principles of succession for the duration of the principatm. The successor must be a member of the family of the Emperor, and if the latter has a son (natural or adopted), it is this which is the legitimate successor to the eyes of all.

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